Bored of the same thing day in and day out
Getting no place doing nothing!
Looking for something
Anything to get out of the rut!
Need to get some energy
Are you ready to stop wasteing your money
on fly by night get rich scams
That promise you everything
for a few dollars or free?
This will help you change your life!!!
has something to invest to make business work.
have Time, others money, and a few a little of each.
what to do and how you do it reflects success probabilities.
has been proven that you can sell anything no matter what it is.
to sell you need something to sell. And a way to sell, deliver, and
track it. It also helps to have people who also sell/produce/buy.
way to reach these people also helps.
trial and error in the long run can work, it very rarely does, in
business its nice to know what works and what does not, so if your
not a master in marketing you should have access to training. Mentor
who is willing and able to help you start and get to the point of
success knowing that by helping you he is growing also. This gives
the mentor motivation to see you succeed!
you don't already have a business.
is a proven real business
you have a product you wish to sell
will get your product not only in front of buyers
sales people also who will help sell your products.
get more sales of your products
even if your just having a garage sale.
you have a business you can start earning money!
once you start earning money you can start investing!
a man that works for money is a slave!
a man that has money working for him is a master!
don't make the rules I just understand them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about
the economic mechanism. For other uses, see Trade
Look up trade
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
A trader in Germany, 16th century
Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara,
Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law (1909) by
Howard Earle, Jr.
Trade involves the transfer of the ownership
of goods or
services from one person or entity to another in exchange for
other goods or services or for money.
Possible synonyms of "trade" include "commerce"
transaction". Types of trade include barter.
A network that allows trade is called a market.
The original form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of
goods and services for other goods and services. Later one side of
the barter started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic
as well as practical importance. Modern traders generally negotiate
through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying
can be separated from selling, or earning.
of money (and later credit,
money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two
traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two
traders is called multilateral trade.
Trade exists due to the specialization and division of labor, in
which most people concentrate on a small aspect of production,
trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because
different regions may have a comparative
advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some
or because different regions' size may encourage mass
production. As such, trade at market
prices between locations can benefit both locations.
trade consists of the sale
of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location, such as a
or kiosk, online
or by mail, in small
or individual lots for direct consumption
or use by the purchaser.
is defined as the sale of goods that are sold as merchandise
and/or industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional
or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Trading is a value-added
function: it is the economic process by which a product finds its end
user, in which specific risks are borne by the trader.
Trading can also refer to the action performed by traders
and other market agents in the financial
See also: Economic
history and Timeline
of international trade
communication in prehistoric
times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who
bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of
modern day currency. Peter
Watson dates the history
of long-distance commerce from circa
150,000 years ago.
In the mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures
were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using
the Danube river, at a time beginning 35-30,000 BC.
Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded
human history. There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and
flint during the
Main article: Obsidian
in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea
from 17,000 BC.
and Near East
The earliest use of obsidian in
the Near East dates to the Lower and Middle paleolithic.
— HIH Prince
Mikasa no Miya Takahito
Trade in the stone was investigated by Robert
Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901.
Trade is believed to have first begun in south west of Asia.
Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this
material was increasingly the preferred choice rather than chert
from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits
of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region.
Obsidian is thought
to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools,
although since other more easily obtainable material were available,
use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the
rich man's flint".
Obsidian was traded at distances of 900
kilometres within the region.
Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was
greatest in this material.
Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE
Anatolia was the source primarily for trade with the Levant, Iran and
Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990.
Melos and Lipari
sources produced among the most widespread trading in the
Mediterranean region as known to archaeology.
mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for
The material was most largely traded during the Kassite
period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE.
and Near East
Ebla was a prominent
trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching
into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia.
A map of the Silk
Road trade route between Europe and Asia.
Materials used for creating jewelry
were traded with Egypt
since 3000 BC. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd
millennium BC, when Sumerians
traded with the Harappan
civilization of the Indus
Valley. The Phoenicians
were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean
Sea, and as far north as Britain
for sources of tin to
For this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called
From the beginning of Greek
until the fall of the Roman
empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought
valuable spice to
Europe from the far east, including India
and China. Roman
commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure. The Roman
empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that
enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant
In ancient Greece Hermes
was the god of trade
(commerce) and weights and measures,
for Romans Mercurius also god of merchants, whose festival was
celebrated by traders on the 25th day of the fifth month.
The concept of free trade was an antithesis to the will and economic
direction of the sovereigns of the ancient Greek states. Free trade
between states was stifled by the need for strict internal controls
(via taxation) to maintain security within the treasury of the
sovereign, which nevertheless enabled the maintenance of a modicum
of civility within the structures of functional community
The fall of the Roman empire, and the succeeding Dark
Ages brought instability to Western
Europe and a near collapse of the trade network in the western
world. Trade however continued to flourish among the kingdoms of
Africa, Middle East, India, China and Southeast Asia. Some trade did
occur in the west. For instance, Radhanites
were a medieval guild or group (the precise meaning of the word is
lost to history) of Jewish
merchants who traded between the Christians
in Europe and the
Muslims of the Near
Archaeological evidence (Greenberg 1951)
of the first use of trade-marks are from China dated about 2700
The emergence of exchange networks in
the primitive societies of and near to Mexico are known to have
occurred within recent years before and after 1500 BC.
A map showing the main trade
routes for goods within late
During the Middle
Ages, Central Asia was the economic center of the world.
dominated the East-West trade route known as the Silk
Road after the 4th century AD up to the 8th century AD, with
Suyab and Talas
ranking among their main centers in the north. They were the main
merchants of Central
From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings
traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia.
Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while Varangians to Russia.
League was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade
most of Northern
Europe and the Baltic,
between the 13th and 17th centuries.
The Age of Sail and the Industrial Revolution
Vasco da Gama
pioneered the European Spice
trade in 1498 when he reached Calicut
after sailing around the Cape
of Good Hope at the southern tip of the African continent. Prior
to this, the flow of spice into Europe from India was controlled by
Islamic powers, especially Egypt. The spice trade was of major
economic importance and helped spur the Age
of Discovery in Europe. Spices brought to Europe from the Eastern
world were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight,
sometimes rivaling gold.
In the 16th century, the Seventeen
Provinces were the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange
controls, and advocating the free movement of goods. Trade in the
was dominated by Portugal
in the 16th century, the Dutch
Republic in the 17th century, and the British
in the 18th century. The Spanish
Empire developed regular trade links across both the Atlantic
and the Pacific
Danzig in the
17th century, a port of the Hanseatic
In 1776, Adam
Smith published the paper An
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
It criticised Mercantilism,
and argued that economic
could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since the division
of labour was restricted by the size of the market, he said that
countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide
labour more efficiently and thereby become more productive.
Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import
and export controls
"dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the
benefit of specific industries.
In 1799, the Dutch
East India Company, formerly the world's largest company, became
due to the rise of competitive free trade.
trade with Timbuktu,
In 1817, David
Mill and Robert
Torrens showed that free trade would benefit the industrially
weak as well as the strong, in the famous theory of comparative
advantage. In Principles
of Political Economy and Taxation Ricardo advanced the doctrine
still considered the most counterintuitive in economics:
- When an inefficient producer
sends the merchandise it produces best to a country able to produce
it more efficiently, both countries benefit.
The ascendancy of free trade was primarily based on national
advantage in the mid 19th century. That is, the calculation made was
whether it was in any particular country's self-interest to open its
borders to imports.
Stuart Mill proved that a country with monopoly pricing
power on the international market could manipulate the terms
of trade through maintaining tariffs,
and that the response to this might be reciprocity
in trade policy. Ricardo and others had suggested this earlier. This
was taken as evidence against the universal doctrine of free trade,
as it was believed that more of the economic
surplus of trade would accrue to a country following reciprocal,
rather than completely free, trade policies. This was followed within
a few years by the infant
industry scenario developed by Mill promoting the theory that
government had the "duty" to protect
young industries, although only for a time necessary for them to
develop full capacity. This became the policy in many countries
attempting to industrialise
and out-compete English
exporters. Milton Friedman later continued this vein of thought,
showing that in a few circumstances tariffs might be beneficial to
the host country; but never for the world at large.
Depression was a major economic recession that ran from 1929 to
the late 1930s. During this period, there was a great drop in trade
and other economic indicators.
The lack of free trade was considered by many as a principal cause
of the depression.[citation
needed] Only during the World
War II the recession ended in the United States. Also during the
war, in 1944, 44 countries signed the Bretton Woods Agreement,
intended to prevent national trade barriers, to avoid depressions. It
set up rules and institutions to regulate the international
political economy: the International Monetary Fund and the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later divided
into the World Bank and Bank for International Settlements). These
organisations became operational in 1946 after enough countries
ratified the agreement. In 1947, 23 countries agreed to the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to promote free trade.
During the early years of the Cold-war, the United States of America
and the then Soviet USSR were engaged in talks to exchange two
captured military personnel, a "trade" carried out during
1962 (Polmar p. 142).
Main article: Free
Free trade advanced further in the late 20th century and early
Main article: Protectionism
Protectionism is the policy of restraining and discouraging trade
between states and contrasts with the policy of free trade. This
policy often takes of form of tariffs
and restrictive quotas.
Protectionist policies were particularly prevalent in the 1930s,
between the great
depression and the onset of World War II.
teachings encourage trading (and condemn usury or interest). By trade
the whole society get benefits but interest makes the rich richer and
the poor poorer.
teachings prohibit fraud and dishonest measures.
Main article: History
The first instances of money were objects with intrinsic value.
This is called commodity
money and includes any commonly available commodity that has
intrinsic value; historical examples include pigs, rare seashells,
whale's teeth, and (often) cattle. In medieval Iraq,
bread was used as an early form of money. In Mexico
cocoa beans were money. 
introduced as a standardised money to facilitate a wider exchange of
goods and services. This first stage of currency, where metals were
used to represent stored value, and symbols to represent commodities,
formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500
have examples of coins from the earliest large-scale societies,
although these were initially unmarked lumps of precious
Main article: Doha
The Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations aimed to
to trade around the world, with a focus on making trade
fairer for developing
countries. Talks have been hung over a divide between the rich
countries, represented by the G20,
and the major developing countries. Agricultural
subsidies are the most significant issue upon which agreement has
been hardest to negotiate. By contrast, there was much agreement on
facilitation and capacity building. The Doha round began in Doha,
negotiations were continued in: Cancún,
and Paris, France
and Hong Kong.[citation
Beginning around 1978, the government of the People's
Republic of China (PRC) began an experiment in economic
reform. In contrast to the previous Soviet-style
planned economy, the new measures progressively relaxed
restrictions on farming, agricultural distribution and, several years
later, urban enterprises and labor. The more market-oriented approach
reduced inefficiencies and stimulated private investment,
particularly by farmers, that led to increased productivity and
output. One feature was the establishment of four (later five)
Economic Zones located along the South-east coast.[citation
The reforms proved spectacularly successful in terms of increased
output, variety, quality, price
and demand. In real
terms, the economy doubled in size between 1978 and 1986, doubled
again by 1994, and again by 2003. On a real per capita basis,
doubling from the 1978 base took place in 1987, 1996 and 2006. By
2008, the economy was 16.7 times the size it was in 1978, and 12.1
times its previous per capita levels. International trade progressed
even more rapidly, doubling on average every 4.5 years. Total two-way
trade in January 1998 exceeded that for all of 1978; in the first
quarter of 2009, trade exceeded the full-year 1998 level. In 2008,
China's two-way trade totaled US$2.56 trillion.[citation
In 1991 China joined the Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation group, a trade-promotion forum. In 2001, it
also joined the World Trade Organization.[citation
Main article: International
International trade is the exchange of goods and services across
national borders. In most countries, it represents a significant part
While international trade has been present throughout much of history
(see Silk Road, Amber
Road), its economic, social, and political importance have
increased in recent centuries, mainly because of Industrialization,
advanced transportation, globalization,
corporations, and outsourcing.[citation
Empirical evidence for the success of trade can be seen in the
contrast between countries such as South
Korea, which adopted a policy of export-oriented
industrialization, and India, which historically had a more
closed policy. South Korea has done much better by economic criteria
than India over the past fifty years, though its success also has to
do with effective state institutions.[citation
sanctions against a specific country are sometimes imposed, in
order to punish that country for some action. An embargo,
a severe form of externally imposed isolation, is a blockade of all
trade by one country on another. For example, the United States has
had an embargo
against Cuba for over
International trade, which is governed by the World
Trade Organization, can be restricted by both tariff and
non-tariff barriers. International trade is usually regulated by
governmental quotas and restrictions, and often taxed by tariffs.
Tariffs are usually on imports, but sometimes countries may impose
export tariffs or subsidies.
barriers include Sanitary and Phytosanitary rules, labeling
requirements and food safety regulations. All of these are called
barriers. If a government removes all trade barriers, a
condition of free trade exists. A government that implements a
protectionist policy establishes trade barriers. There are usually
few trade restrictions within countries although a common feature of
many developing countries is police and other road blocks along main
highways, that primarily exist to extract bribes.[citation
trade movement, also known as the trade justice
movement, promotes the use of labour,
standards for the production of commodities,
particularly those exported from the Third
and Second Worlds
to the First
World. Such ideas have also sparked a debate on whether trade
itself should be codified as a human
Importing firms voluntarily adhere to fair trade standards or
governments may enforce them through a combination of employment
law. Proposed and practiced fair trade policies vary widely,
ranging from the common prohibition of goods
made using slave
labour to minimum price
support schemes such as those for coffee in the 1980s.
organizations also play a role in promoting fair trade standards
by serving as independent monitors of compliance with labeling
needed] As such, it is a form of Protectionism.
S Buckingham, John
D Maurice, H
W Dilke, T
K Hervey, W
H Dixon, N
H Rendall, J
M Murry - The
Lewer, 1904 -Retrieved 2012-06-09
& Rahnema (1994), p. ?. "I want nine out of ten
people from my Ummah (nation) as traders" and "Trader, who
did trading in truth, and sold the right quantity and quality of
goods, he will stand along Prophets and Martyrs, on Judgment day".
trade be considered a human right?". COPLA. 9 December
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trade.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
redirects here. For other uses, see Advertiser
redirects here. For the English punk band, see The
For advertising in
Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Spam.
For proposal on advertising about Wikipedia, see
advertisement from the 1890s
Advertising (or advertizing)
is a form of marketing
used to persuade an audience
to take or continue some action, usually with respect to a commercial
offering, or political or ideological support.
In Latin, ad vertere means "to
The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or
shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising
messages are usually paid for by sponsors
and viewed via various old
media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines,
television advertisement, radio advertisement, outdoor
advertising or direct
mail; or new
media such as blogs, websites or text messages.
Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased
of their products
through "branding", which involves associating a product
name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers.
advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer
product or service include political parties, interest groups,
religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit
organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion,
such as a public
service announcement (PSA).
Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques
introduced with tobacco
advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns
Bernays, which is often considered the founder of modern, Madison
In 2010, spending
on advertising was estimated at $143 billion in the United States and
$467 billion worldwide
Internationally, the largest ("big
four") advertising conglomerates are Interpublic,
Egyptians used papyrus
to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial
messages and political campaign displays have been found in the
ruins of Pompeii
and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found
advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient
Greece and Ancient
Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another
manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to
this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The
tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock
art paintings that date back to 4000 BC.
China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the
Poetry (11th to 7th centuries BC) of bamboo flutes played to sell
candy. Advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic
signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to
the Song dynasty
used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a
rabbit logo with "Jinan
Liu’s Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high quality
steel rods and make fine quality needles, to be ready for use at home
in no time" written above and below
is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising
In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle
Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read,
instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller",
"tailor", or "blacksmith" would use an image
associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a
diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and
vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and
wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town
criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the
In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly
newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used
mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly
affordable with advances in the printing
press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as
disease ravaged Europe. However, false
advertising and so-called "quack"
advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of
advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called
Barratt from London has been called "the father of modern
Working for the Pears
Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign
for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans,
images and phrases. One of his slogans, ""Good morning.
Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the
An advertising tactic that he used was
to associate the Pears brand with high culture and quality. Most
famously, he used the painting Bubbles
Everett Millais as an advertisement by adding a bar of Pears soap
into the foreground. (Millais protested at this alteration of his
work, but in vain as Barrat had bought the copyright.)
Barratt continued this theme with a series of adverts of well groomed
middle-class children, associating Pears with domestic comfort and
aspirations of high society.
Barrat established Pears Annual
in 1891 as a spin-off magazine which promoted contemporary
illustration and colour printing and in 1897 added the Pears
Cyclopedia a one-volume encyclopedia.
From the early 20th century Pears was famous for the annual "Miss
Pears" competition in which parents entered their children into
the high-profile hunt for a young brand ambassador to be used on
packaging and in consumer promotions. He recruited scientists and the
celebrities of the day to publicly endorse the product. Lillie
Langtry, a British music
hall singer and stage actress with a famous ivory complexion,
received income as the first woman to endorse a commercial product,
advertising Pears Soap.
Barratt introduced many of the
crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were
widely circulated in his day. He constantly stressed the importance
of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing
the product's availability through saturation campaigns. He also
understood the importance of constantly reevaluating the market for
changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change,
fashions change, and the advertiser has to change with them. An idea
that was effective a generation ago would fall flat, stale, and
unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of
today is always better than the older idea, but it is different –
it hits the present taste."
As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century,
advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this
advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order
In June 1836, French newspaper La
Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its
pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and
increase its profitability
and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney
B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising
agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space
in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at
higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad – the copy, layout,
and artwork – was still prepared by the company wishing to
advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation
changed in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W.
Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and
execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the
advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning,
and advertising was firmly established as a profession. 
Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis
Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas
to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group
to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space
in newspapers. N.
W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume
responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and
was located in Philadelphia.
A 1900 advertisement for Pears soap
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia
Advertising increased dramatically in the United States as
industrialization expanded the supply of manufactured products. In
order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed
to recruit workers as consumers of factory products. It did so
through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the
population's economic behavior on a larger scale.
In the 1910s and 1920s, advertisers in the U.S. adopted the doctrine
that human instincts could be targeted and harnessed –
into the desire to purchase commodities.
a nephew of Sigmund
Freud, became associated with the method and is now often
considered the founder of modern advertising.
The tobacco industry was one of the firsts to make use of mass
production, with the introduction of the Bonsack
machine to roll cigarettes. The Bonsack machine allowed the
production of cigarettes for a mass markets, and the tobacco industry
needed to match such an increase in supply with the creation of a
demand from the masses through advertising.
The tobacco companies pioneered the new advertising techniques when
they hired Bernays to create positive associations with tobacco
Advertising was also used as a vehicle for cultural
assimilation, encouraging workers to exchange their traditional
habits and community structure in favor of a shared "modern"
An important tool for influencing immigrant workers was the American
Association of Foreign Language Newspapers (AAFLN). The AAFLN was
primarily an advertising agency but also gained heavily centralized
control over much of the immigrant press.
At the turn of the 20th century, there
were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising
was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the
purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies
recognized the value of women's insight during the creative
process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual
sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although
tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with
the message "A skin you love to touch".[non-primary
of early psychology
In the early 20th century, psychologists
Walter D. Scott and John
B. Watson contributed applied psychological theory to the field
of advertising. Scott said, “Man has been called the reasoning
animal but he could with greater truthfulness be called the creature
of suggestion. He is reasonable, but he is to a greater extent
He demonstrated this through his advertising technique of a direct
command to the consumer. The former chair at Johns
Hopkins University, John
B. Watson was a highly recognized psychologist in the 1920s.
After leaving the field of academia he turned his attention towards
advertising where he implemented the concepts of behaviorism
into advertising. This focused on appealing to the basic emotions of
the consumer: love, hate, and fear. This type of advertising proved
to be extremely effective as it suited the changing social context
which led to heavy influence of future advertising strategy and
cemented the place of psychology in advertising.[citation
radio from the 1920s
Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored by a milk
company and published in the Los
Angeles Times on May 6, 1930
In the early 1920s, the first
radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and
retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to
consumers. As time passed, many non-profit
organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio
stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.
When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, each
individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business
in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the
beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station
owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling
sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses
throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the
sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.
service advertising in WW2
The advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and
services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about
non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS,[citation
needed] political ideology, energy conservation and
Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful
educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences.
The phrase "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the
public interest – it is much too powerful a tool to use solely
for commercial purposes" is attributed to Howard
Gossage by David
service advertising, non-commercial
advertising, public interest advertising, cause
marketing, and social
marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of
sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques
(generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of
non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
In the United States, the granting of television and radio
licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a
certain amount of public
service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast
stations in America air the bulk of their required public service
announcements during the late night or early morning when the
smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and
prime time commercial slots available for high-paying
Public service advertising in the United States reached its height
during World War I
and World War II
under the direction of more than one government. During WWII
President Roosevelt commissioned the creation of The War Advertising
Council (now known as the Ad
Council) which is the United States' largest developer of PSA
campaigns on behalf of government agencies and non-profit
organizations, including the longest-running PSA campaign, Smokey
television in the 1950s
practice was carried over to commercial
television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was
fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people
who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the
commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public
good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC,
originally a private company, the British
Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal
Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham
Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to
adopt a public funding model, creating the Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States, the
capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications
Act of 1934 which created the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC).
However, the U.S. Congress did require commercial
broadcasting companies to operate in the "public interest,
convenience, and necessity".
broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967
Broadcasting Act which led to the Public
Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National
Public Radio (NPR).
In the early 1950s, the DuMont
Television Network began the modern practice of selling
advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had
trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated
by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses.
This eventually became the standard for the commercial television
industry in the United States. However, it was still a common
practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The
United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors
exercised great control over the content of the show – up to
and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the
needed] The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now,
a notable exception being the Hallmark
Hall of Fame.[citation
diversification in the 1960s
In the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass
media channels became more prominent. For example, the Esso
gasoline company spent hundreds of millions of dollars on a brand
awareness campaign built around the simple and alliterative
theme Put a Tiger in Your Tank.
Worldwide copywriter Sandy
learned that motorists desired both power and play while driving, and
chose the tiger as an easy-to-remember symbol to communicate those
feelings. The North American and later European campaign featured
extensive television and radio and magazine ads, including photos
with tiger tails supposedly emerging from car gas tanks, promotional
events featuring real tigers, billboards, and in Europe station pump
hoses "wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop music
Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps of successor firm
television from the 1980s
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable
television and particularly MTV.
Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type
of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising
message, rather than it being a by-product
or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became
increasingly prevalent, specialty
channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted
to advertising, such as QVC,
Shopping Network, and ShopTV
the Internet from the 1990s
Main article: Online
With the advent of the ad
server, marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for
advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com"
boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising
revenue, offering everything from coupons
to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of
websites, including the search
started a change in online
advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant ads based on an
individual's browsing interests. This has led to a plethora of
similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive
The share of advertising spending
relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For
example, in the US in 1925, the main advertising media were
newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars,
and outdoor posters.
Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By
1998, television and radio had become major advertising media.
Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly
lower – about 2.4 percent.
marketing involves unusual approaches such as staged encounters
in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered
with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can
respond to become part of the advertising message. This type of
advertising is unpredictable, which causes consumers to buy the
product or idea.[citation
needed] This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and
"embedded" ads, such as via product
placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and
various campaigns utilizing social
network services such as Facebook
The advertising business model has also been adapted in recent
In media for
equity, advertising is not sold, but provided to start-up
companies in return for equity.
If the company grows and is sold, the media companies receive cash
for their shares.
Domain name registrants (usually those who register and renew domains
as an investment) sometimes "park"
their domains and allow advertising companies to place ads on
their sites in return for per-click payments.
These ads are typically driven by pay per click search engines like
Google or Yahoo, but ads can sometimes be placed directly on targeted
domain names through a domain lease or by making contact with the
registrant of a domain name that describes a product.
Domain name registrants are generally easy to identify through WHOIS
records that are publicly available at registrar websites.
Various competing models of hierarchies
of effects attempt to provide a theoretical underpinning to
model of Clow and Baack
clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each
individual advertisement. The model postulates six steps a buyer
moves through when making a purchase:
Means-End Theory suggests that an
advertisement should contain a message or means that leads the
consumer to a desired end-state.
Leverage Points aim to move the consumer from understanding a
product's benefits to linking those benefits with personal values.
Main article: Marketing
The marketing mix it was proposed by
Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. It consists of four basic elements
called the "four P's". Product is the first P representing
the actual product. Price represents the process of determining the
value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the
product to the consumer such as distribution channels, market
coverage and movement organization. The last P stands for Promotion
which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing
them to buy the product.
An advertisement for the Wikimedia
An advertisement for a diner. Such
signs are common on storefronts.
Paying people to hold signs is one of
the oldest forms of advertising, as with this human
A bus with an advertisement for GAP
in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular media for
Mobile Billboard in East
Coast Park, Singapore
Class 101 with UNICEF
ads at Ingolstadt main railway station
Bus, with a film
advertisement along its side.
Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial
advertising media can include wall
furniture components, printed flyers and rack
cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web
banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups,
stop benches, human
billboards and forehead
advertising, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses,
banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"),
advertisements on seatback
tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts
screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains,
elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls,
stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping
cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming
audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and
supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor
pays to deliver their message through a medium is
advertising / Music
In 2014, a study conducted over 7 years found that the television
commercial is still the most effective mass-market advertising
The study's findings stated that for every £1 (GBP) invested
in TV advertising, it returned £1.79.
This is reflected by the high prices television networks charge for
during popular events. The annual Super
game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising
event on television - with an audience of over 108 million and
studies showing that 50% of those only tuned in to see the
The average cost of a single thirty-second television spot during
this game reached US$4 million & a 60-second spot double that
figure in 2014.
advertisements may be inserted into regular programming through
computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank
or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the
remote broadcast audience.
More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the
where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in
televised sporting events.
Virtual product placement is also possible.
An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically
five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a
portmanteau of the words "information" and "commercial".
The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse
purchase, so that the target sees the presentation and then
immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free
telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and
often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have
testimonials from customers and industry
advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a
transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime
is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the
commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to
sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an
advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found on air,
and also online. According to Arbitron,
radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than
93 percent of the U.S. population.[citation
Online advertising is a form of promotion
that uses the Internet and World
Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing
messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad
server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that
appear on search
engine results pages, banner
ads, in pay
per click text ads, rich
media ads, Social
network advertising, online
classified advertising, advertising
networks and e-mail
marketing, including e-mail
Domain name advertising
Domain name advertising is most commonly done through pay per click
however, advertisers often lease space directly on domain names that
generically describe their products.
When an Internet user visits a website by typing a domain name
directly into their web browser, this is known as "direct
navigation", or "type in" web traffic. Although many
Internet users search for ideas and products using search engines
and mobile phones, a large number of users around the world still
use the address bar. They will type a keyword into the address bar
such as "geraniums" and add ".com" to the end of
it. Sometimes they will do the same with ".org" or a
country-code Top Level Domain (TLD such as ".co.uk" for
the United Kingdom or ".ca" for Canada). When Internet
users type in a generic keyword and add .com or another top-level
domain (TLD) ending, it produces a targeted sales lead.
Domain name advertising was originally developed by Oingo (later
known as Applied Semantics), one of Google's
Technological development and economic globalization favors the
emergence of new communication channels and new techniques of
Covert advertising, is when
a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For
example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a
definite brand, as in the movie Minority
Report, where Tom
Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia
logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with
logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I,
Robot, where main character played by Will
Smith mentions his Converse
shoes several times, calling them "classics", because the
film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs
also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi
logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac
chose to advertise in the movie The
Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in
which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for
and Aston Martin
cars are featured in recent James
Bond films, most notably Casino
Royale. In "Fantastic
Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport
vehicle shows a large Dodge
logo on the front. Blade
Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement;
the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola
Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as
a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything
from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major
national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such
as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A
form of press advertising is classified
advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to
purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a
product or service. Another form of press advertising is the display
ad, which is a larger ad (which can include art) that typically run
in an article section of a newspaper.[citation
are large structures located in public places which display
advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often,
they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor
and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location
with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and
in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in
newspaper advertised to its target market at North
Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake
- Mobile billboard advertising
billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards
or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely
for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients,
they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases,
large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted;
some being backlit,
and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static,
while others change; for example, continuously or periodically
rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for
various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world,
including: target advertising, one-day and long-term campaigns,
conventions, sporting events, store openings and similar promotional
events, and big advertisements from smaller companies.[citation
In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store.
It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store,
such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout
counters (a.k.a. POP – point of purchase display),
eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and
advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video
Coffee cup advertising
coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup
that is distributed out of an office, café, or drive-through
coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in
Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States,
India, and parts of the Middle East.[citation
This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by
Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street
furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse
dancers and 3D pavement advertising, for getting brand messages
out into public spaces.[citation
Sheltered outdoor advertising
this type of advertising combines outdoor with indoor advertisement
by placing large mobile, structures (tents)
in public places on temporary bases. The large outer advertising
space aims to exert a strong pull on the observer, the product is
promoted indoors, where the creative decor can intensify the
This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame,
money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote
specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their
products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite
products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers.
Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as
television or print adverts to advertise specific or general
products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its
downsides, however; one mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to
relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of
eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China,
Phelps' contract with Kelloggs
was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him
after he was photographed smoking marijuana.[citation
needed] Celebrities such as Britney
Spears have advertised for multiple products including Pepsi,
Candies from Kohl's, Twister, NASCAR, and Toyota.[citation
This involves getting customers to generate advertising through
blogs, websites, wikis and forums, for some kind of
Using aircraft, balloons
or airships to
create or display advertising media. Skywriting
is a notable example.[citation
Purpose of advertising
Advertising is at the front of
delivering the proper message to customers and prospective customers.
The purpose of advertising is to convince customers that a company's
services or products are the best, enhance the image of the company,
point out and create a need for products or services, demonstrate new
uses for established products, announce new products and programs,
reinforce the salespeople's individual messages, draw customers to
the business, and to hold existing customers.
Sales promotions are another way to
advertise. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used
to gather information about what type of customers one draws in and
where they are, and to jumpstart sales. Sales promotions include
things like contests and games, sweepstakes, product giveaways,
samples coupons, loyalty programs, and discounts. The ultimate goal
of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to
and advertising approaches
Increasingly, other media are overtaking
many of the "traditional" media such as television, radio
and newspaper because of a shift toward the usage of the Internet for
news and music as well as devices like digital
video recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo.
signage is poised to become a major mass media because of its
ability to reach larger audiences for less money. Digital signage
also offers the unique ability to see the target
audience where they are reached by the medium. Technological
advances have also made it possible to control the message on digital
signage with much precision, enabling the messages to be relevant to
the target audience at any given time and location which in turn,
gets more response from the advertising. Digital signage is being
successfully employed in supermarkets.
Another successful use of digital signage is in hospitality locations
such as restaurants
Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent[when?]
phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on
the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the
traffic that the website receives.[citation
In online display advertising, display ads generate awareness
quickly. Unlike search, which requires someone to be aware of a need,
display advertising can drive awareness of something new and without
previous knowledge. Display works well for direct response. Display
is not only used for generating awareness, it’s used for direct
response campaigns that link to a landing page with a clear ‘call
E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk
E-mail advertising is known as "e-mail
spam". Spam has been a problem for e-mail users for many
A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social
network advertising. It is online advertising with a focus on social
networking sites. This is a relatively immature market, but it has
shown a lot of promise as advertisers are able to take advantage of
the demographic information the user has provided to the social
networking site. Friendertising is a more precise advertising term in
which people are able to direct advertisements toward others directly
using social network services.[citation
As the mobile phone became a new mass medium in 1998 when the
first paid downloadable content appeared on mobile phones in
advertising followed, also first launched in Finland in
needed] By 2007 the value of mobile advertising had reached
$2 billion and providers such as Admob
delivered billions of mobile ads.[citation
More advanced mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, Multimedia
Messaging Service picture and video messages, advergames and
marketing campaigns. A particular feature driving mobile ads is
the 2D barcode,
which replaces the need to do any typing of web addresses, and uses
the camera feature of modern phones to gain immediate access to web
content. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active
users of 2D barcodes.[citation
Some companies have proposed placing messages or corporate logos
on the side of booster rockets
and the International
Unpaid advertising (also called "publicity advertising"),
can include personal recommendations ("bring a friend",
"sell it"), spreading buzz, or achieving the feat of
equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States, "Xerox"
cleaner, and "Band-Aid"
bandage). However, some companies[which?]
oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. Equating a
brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a
trademark – turning it into a generic term which means that
its legal protection as a trademark is lost.[citation
From time to time, The
CW Television Network airs short programming breaks called
"Content Wraps", to advertise one company's product during
an entire commercial break. The CW pioneered "content wraps"
and some products featured were Herbal
Guitar Hero II,
A new promotion concept has appeared,
"ARvertising", advertising on Augmented
Controversy exists on the effectiveness of subliminal
advertising (see mind
control), and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see
Rise in new media
US Newspaper Advertising
Newspaper Association of America published data
With the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup,
and email advertisements (all of which are often unwanted or spam in
the case of email) are now commonplace. Particularly since the rise
of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an
advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a
needed] In general, the advertising community has not yet
made this easy, although some have used the Internet to widely
distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. In the
last three-quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by
18% and 9% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: −10.1%
(TV), −11.7% (radio), −14.8% (magazines) and −18.7%
Another significant trend regarding
future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche
market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the
Internet and the theory of The
Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach
specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a
message was to blanket the largest mass
market audience possible.[citation
needed] However, usage tracking, customer profiles and the
growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from
blogs to social networking sites, provide advertisers with audiences
that are smaller but much better defined,[citation
needed] leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and
more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others,
Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their
demand menus. These advertisements are targeted to a specific
group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a
particular business or practice, from their home. This causes the
viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements
they want to view.
AdSense is an example of niche marketing. Google calculates the
primary purpose of a website and adjusts ads accordingly; it uses key
words on the page (or even in emails) to find the general ideas of
topics disused and places ads that will most likely be clicked on by
viewers of the email account or website visitors.[citation
Main article: Crowdsourcing
The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of
advertisements. User-generated ads are created by people, as opposed
to an advertising agency or the company themselves, often resulting
from brand sponsored advertising competitions. For the 2007 Super
Bowl, the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo
held the Crash the Super Bowl contest, allowing people to
create their own Doritos
Chevrolet held a
similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs.
Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007
Super Bowl, Frito-Lays relaunched the competition for the 2009 and
2010 Super Bowl. The resulting ads were among the most-watched and
most-liked Super Bowl ads. In fact, the winning ad that aired in the
2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA
Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the
winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's
BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about".
This trend has given rise to several
online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on
behalf of a company. Founded in 2007, Zooppa
has launched ad competitions for brands such as Google, Nike,
needed] Crowdsourced remains controversial, as the long-term
impact on the advertising industry is still unclear.
Main article: Global
Advertising has gone through five major
stages of development: domestic, export, international,
multi-national, and global. For global
advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business
objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide
advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice,
of scale in the creative process, maximising local effectiveness
of ads, and increasing the company's speed of implementation. Born
from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three
primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of
global advertising executions: exporting executions, producing local
executions, and importing ideas that travel.
Advertising research is key to
determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The
ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad contribute
to its success is how economies of scale are maximised. Once one
knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any
other market. Market
research measures, such as Flow
of Attention, Flow
of Emotion and branding
moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any
country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not
verbal, elements of the ad.
See also: Soft
power and International
particularly those that own marketable commercial products or
services, often promote their interests and positions through the
advertising of those goods because the target audience is not only
largely unaware of the forum as a vehicle for foreign messaging but
also willing to receive the message while in a mental state of
absorbing information from advertisements during television
commercial breaks, while reading a periodical, or while passing by
billboards in public spaces. A prime example of this messaging
technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel.
While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the
typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism, some
travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose
of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the
target audience towards a given nation or region. It is common for
advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced and
distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these
ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign
international public perception. Additionally, a wide range of
foreign airlines and travel-related services which advertise
separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their
respective governments; examples include, though are not limited to,
Airlines (Singapore), Qatar
of China), and Air
China (People's Republic of China). By depicting their
destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and
pleasant light, countries market themselves to populations abroad in
a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions.
In the realm
agencies, continued industry diversification has seen observers
note that "big global clients don't need big global agencies any
This is reflected by the growth of non-traditional agencies in
various global markets, such as Canadian business TAXI
in Australia and has been referred to as "a revolution in the ad
The ability to record shows on digital
video recorders (such as TiVo) allow watchers to record the
programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through
commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box
sets are offered for sale of television programs; fewer people
watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold,
means the company will receive additional profits from the these
To counter this effect, a variety of strategies have been
employed. Many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV
shows like Survivor.
Other strategies include integrating advertising with
advertising on companion devices (like smartphones and tablets)
during the show, and creating TV
apps. Additionally, some like brands have opted for social
education has become popular with bachelor, master and doctorate
degrees becoming available in the emphasis.[citation
needed] A surge in advertising interest is typically
attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural
and technological changes, such as the advance of online social
needed] A unique model for teaching advertising is the
advertising agency, where advertising students create campaigns
for real companies.
Organizations such as the American
Advertising Federation establish companies with students to
create these campaigns.[citation
Main article: Criticism
advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth,[citation
needed] it is not without social costs. Unsolicited
commercial e-mail and other forms of spam
have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users
of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet
Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools,
which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.
One of the
most controversial criticisms of advertisement in the present day is
that of the predominance of advertising of foods high in sugar, fat,
and salt specifically to children. Critics claim that food
advertisements targeting children are exploitive and are not
sufficiently balanced with proper nutritional education to help
children understand the consequences of their food choices.
Additionally, children may not understand that they are being sold
something, and are therefore more
impressionable.[better source needed]
Michelle Obama has criticized large food companies for advertising
unhealthy foods largely towards children and has requested that food
companies either limit their advertising to children or advertise
foods that are more in line with dietary guidelines.
Main article: Advertising
There have been increasing efforts to
protect the public interest by regulating the content and the
influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television
tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of
to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in 1991.
Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating
within the country, the European
Court of Justice ruled that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign
programming, including those from neighboring countries or via
satellite. Greece's regulations are of a similar nature, "banning
advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total
ban on advertisement for war toys".
In Europe and elsewhere,[where?]
there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to
children should be regulated.[citation
needed] This debate was exacerbated by a report released by
Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast
food advertising that targets children was an important factor in
the epidemic of childhood
obesity in the United States.[citation
In New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Canada, and
many European countries, the advertising industry operates a system
needed] Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree
on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The
general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is
'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory
organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent,
with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the
Standards Authority in the UK.[citation
In the UK, most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display
of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system.
Currently, the display of an advertisement without consent from the
Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2,500
needed] All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the
UK have convictions of this nature.[citation
In the US, many communities believe that many forms of outdoor
advertising blight the public realm.
As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban
billboard advertising in the open countryside.
Cities such as São
Paulo have introduced an outright ban
with London also having specific legislation to control unlawful
Many advertisers employ a wide-variety
of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. In France,
printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print
to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon
Law limiting the use of English).
The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and
condoms are subject to government regulation in many countries. For
instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries
to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of
needed] Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as
a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements.[citation
Main article: Advertising
Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works
to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. It
entails numerous forms of research which employ different
methodologies. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known
as copy testing)
and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns – pre-testing is done
before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and post-testing
is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad
or campaign. Continuous ad
tracking and the Communicus
System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research
Main article: Advertising
Meanings between consumers and marketers depict signs
and symbols that are encoded in everyday objects.[need
quotation to verify] Semiotics
is the study of signs and how they are interpreted. Advertising has
many hidden signs and meanings[citation
needed] within brand
package designs, print advertisements, and television
advertisements. Semiotics aims to study and interpret the message
being conveyed in (for example) advertisements. Logos and
advertisements can be interpreted at two levels - known as the
surface level and the underlying level. The surface level uses signs
creatively to create an image or personality for a product.[citation
needed] These signs can be images, words, fonts, colors,
or slogans. The underlying level is made up of hidden meanings. The
combination of images, words, colors,
and slogans must be interpreted by the audience or consumer.
The "key to advertising analysis" is the signifier and the
signified. The signifier is the object and the signified is the
A product has a signifier and a signified. The signifier is the
color, brand name, logo design, and technology. The signified has two
meanings known as denotative and connotative. The denotative meaning
is the meaning of the product. A television's denotative meaning
might be that it is high definition. The connotative meaning is the
product's deep and hidden meaning. A connotative meaning of a
television would be that it is top-of-the-line.
used a black silhouette
of a person that was the age of Apple's target market. They placed
the silhouette in front of a blue screen so that the picture behind
the silhouette could be constantly changing. However, the one thing
that stays the same in these ads is that there is music in the
background and the silhouette is listening to that music on a white
iPod through white headphones. Through advertising, the white color
on a set of earphones now signifies that the music device is an iPod.
The white color signifies almost all of Apple's products.
The semiotics of gender
plays a key influence on the way in which signs are interpreted. When
roles in advertising, individuals are influenced by three
categories. Certain characteristics of stimuli may enhance or
decrease the elaboration of the message (if the product is perceived
as feminine or
Second, the characteristics of individuals can affect attention
and elaboration of the message (traditional
or non-traditional gender-role
orientation). Lastly, situational factors may be important to
influence the elaboration of the message.
There are two types of marketing
communication claims-objective and subjective.
Objective claims stem from the extent to which the claim associates
the brand with a tangible product or service feature. For instance, a
camera may have auto-focus features. Subjective claims convey
emotional, subjective, impressions of intangible aspects of a product
or service. They are non-physical features of a product or service
that cannot be directly perceived, as they have no physical reality.
For instance the brochure
has a beautiful design.
Males tend to
respond better to objective marketing-communications claims while
females tend to
respond better to subjective marketing-communications
Advertisements tend to represent men as independent,[citation
needed] showing them in more occupations than women. Women
are represented mainly as housewives and mothers.[citation
needed] Men are more likely to be shown advertising cars or
products, while women advertise domestic products.[citation
needed] Men are more likely to be shown outdoors or in
needed] Women are depicted in domestic settings.[citation
needed] Men are more often portrayed as authorities.[citation
needed] As far as ads go, with age men seem to gain wisdom
needed] On the other hand women seem to disappear with
are commonly used in advertising. Most voiceovers are done by men,
with figures of up to 94% having been reported.[citation
needed] There have been more female voiceovers in recent
but mainly for food, household products, and feminine-care
Gender effects in the processing of advertising
According to a 1977 study by David Statt, females process information
comprehensively, while males process information through heuristic
devices such as procedures, methods or strategies for solving
could have an effect on how they interpret advertising.
According to this study, men prefer to have available and apparent
cues to interpret the message where females engage in more creative,
associative, imagery-laced interpretation. Later research by a Danish
found that advertising attempts to persuade men to improve their
appearance or performance, whereas its approach to women is aimed at
transformation toward an impossible ideal of female presentation.
Advertising's manipulation of women's aspiration to these ideal
types, as they are portrayed in film, in erotic art, in advertising,
on stage, music video, and other media exposures, requires at least a
conditioned rejection of female reality, and thereby takes on a
highly ideological cast. Not everyone agrees: one critic viewed this
monologic, gender-specific interpretation of advertising as
excessively skewed and politicized.
More recently, research by Martin (2003)
reveals that males and females differ in how they react to
advertising depending on their mood at the time of exposure to the
ads, and the affective tone of the advertising. When feeling sad,
males prefer happy ads to boost their mood. In contrast, females
prefer happy ads when they are feeling happy. The television programs
in which the ads are embedded are shown to influence a viewer's mood
Donley T. Studlar (2002) Tobacco
Control: Comparative Politics in the United States and Canada
p.55 quotation: "...froms. the early days advertising has been
intimately intertwined with tobacco. The man who is sometimes
considered the founder of modern advertising and Madison Avenue,
Edward Bernays, created many of the major cigarette campaigns of the
1920s, including having women march down the street demanding the
right to smoke."
Donald G. Gifford (2010) Suing
the Tobacco and Lead Pigment Industries, p.15 quotation:
"...during the early twentieth century, tobacco manufacturers
virtually created the modern advertising and marketing industry as
it is known today."
Stanton Glantz in Mad
Men Season 3 Extra – Clearing the Air – The History
of Cigarette Advertising, part 1, min 3:38 quotation:
"...development of modern advertising. And it was really the
tobacco industry, from the beginning, that was at the forefront of
the development of modern, innovative, advertising techniques."
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massive assembly line utilized 'extensive single-purpose machinery'
to produce automobiles inexpensively and at a rate that dwarfed
traditional methods, the costly machinery of advertising that
Coolidge had described set out to produce consumers, likewise
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if it was scientifically presented. If advertising copy appealed to
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Captains of Consciousness (1976), pp. 68–59.
"Widespread within the socially oriented literature of business
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The star of one of the most popular advertising campaigns ever
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